How to grow hazelnuts in Siberia
Hazelnuts are the fruit of common hazel from the Birch family, which grows mainly in the south and in the middle lane. Siberian gardeners also grow crops, albeit not on such a scale as their southern counterparts. Read more about how hazel grows in Siberia, planting and caring for a plant.
Is hazel growing in Siberia
Hazelnuts are unpretentious and frost-resistant plants. Varieties, zoned in the middle lane and northern regions, withstand temperatures up to -42 ° C in winter. However, Siberian gardeners do not cultivate hazelnuts in large quantities.
Hazel is mainly grown in nurseries. Cultivation in a private area is possible if you select the site correctly. In a place protected from the cold, hazel will bear fruit annually.
If you are going to grow hazelnuts in Siberia, take care of the following nuances:
- purchase of a frost-resistant variety;
- site selection;
- competent care taking into account the local climate.
Did you know?The hazelnut Institute is functioning in the Turkish city of Trabzon.
How to grow hazelnuts from walnut in Siberia
Hazelnuts are best propagated vegetatively. Sowing nuts is long and time-consuming.
The landing process is as follows:
- Nuts after harvest, stratify. To do this, soak hazelnuts in water for 5 days, then pour in a container with sand and place in a refrigerator with a temperature of 0 ... + 5 ° C for 4 months.
- In winter, after stratification, move the hazelnuts into the snow.
- When the snow has melted, plant the nuts in the ground at a distance of 5 m from each other.
Planting daily water. Take care of the sprouted bushes according to the standard scheme indicated below.
The best varieties for Siberia
In Siberian conditions, hybrid forms of hazelnuts grow best.
For growing, gardeners of Siberia recommend the following types:
- Alida. Seedling of the Moscow ruby. Leaves are red. The fruits ripen in the first decade of September.
- Lentina. The seedling of the Tambov early. Leaves are green. Fruits of medium diameter. The skin is thin. Hazelnuts ripen by mid-August.
- Biysk green leaf. The bush is vigorous, up to 5 m in height.
- Bi-leafed. The leaves are purple. The maturity dates are the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. Suitable for decorative gardening.
Landing in Siberia
Hazel is planted in open ground in the first weeks of October, 3 weeks before the first frosts. In addition to the timing of landing, pay attention to the site. The choice of locality determines whether the culture will grow and bear fruit. Particular attention should also be paid to site preparation and planting technology.
Did you know? The name "hazelnut" is borrowed from the Crimean Tatar "funduq". The etymology of the word goes back to the Greek "ποντικὸν κάρυον" - "Pontic nut", because that's what the Greeks called hazelnuts.
A suitable place to plant is an important factor in growing hazelnuts.
The main parameters of the garden are as follows:
- The soil. The best option is loose soil saturated with humus.
- Humidity. Groundwater should be no higher than 1 m to the ground. Wetlands are not suitable for planting.
- Terrain. Preferred elevation or slope on the sunny side. Give preference to places protected from the wind with a fence or hedge. The optimal distance from hazel to fences or buildings is from 5 m. Neighboring plants should be located at a distance of about 3 m.
Video: how to grow hazelnuts in Siberia
Before planting, the garden needs to be prepared. The soil is leveled with a rake or pitchfork. The site is cleaned of debris. Dig the earth to a depth of 15 cm.
For planting, dig holes with a diameter of 0.5–0.6 m and a depth of 0.55–0.6 m. The optimal distance between the landing pits is 5 m.Between the bushes the distance can be reduced to 4 m, between the rows - increased to 6 m.
Fertilizer from a humus bucket, 200 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium salt is laid in the planting pit. Before planting, the branches of the seedling are cut to 20–25 cm. The roots are treated with clay mash.
Landing is carried out according to the following instructions:
- Place a seedling in the pit.
- Fill the voids in the hole with soil so that the root neck is 2-3 cm below ground level.
- Pour hazelnut 2–2.5 buckets of water.
- Mulch the seedling with sawdust, straw, peat or leaves.
Subtleties of care and ripening
The growth and fruiting of hazel is affected by the care of the plantings. Plant health depends on watering, fertilizing, mulching and winter preparation. All these measures must be performed correctly. Below are the basic rules for caring for hazelnuts.
In order for hazelnuts to grow and bear fruit, the plant is regularly watered. Watering begins after flowering and ends when the leaves fall. The culture requires 1-2 watering per month. Adjust the frequency depending on the weather. The more rainfall, the less soil moisture required and vice versa. For one irrigation, 5-7 buckets of water are poured under the plant.
Important! In dry weather, additionally spray leaves and branches.
Fertilizer selection and top dressing
If fertilizers were added to the planting pit, the hazel can not be fed for the first three years.
From the fourth year, recharge is made according to the following scheme:
|In the spring at the beginning of the growing season||150 g nitroammofoski|
|At the time of kidney swelling||25 g of urea|
|In June||25 g ammonium nitrate|
|In the middle of autumn||25 g of potassium salt, 3.5 kg of manure, 50 g of superphosphate|
Frosts are the main enemy of plant crops in Siberia. To protect hazel from the cold, mulch is placed on the trunk circle.
Mulch also retains moisture in the soil, which is why the root system is better saturated with nutrients.
You can mulch plants:
- fallen leaves;
- tree bark.
Young plants up to three years old need shelter before wintering. Before frost, hazel is wrapped in spanbond. Shrub forms can be bent to the ground, securing the branches with brackets. Bent shoots are covered with spruce branches or the same spanbond.
Since the fourth year, hazelnuts can not be covered before frost. However, look at the varietal characteristics and the predicted temperature. If winter frosts are lower than the variety can withstand, hazel is covered by analogy with young plants.
Important! You can also remove green nuts, but their shelf life is not more than 1 month.
Collection and storage of fruits
The fruits are harvested when the nuts turn brown. Ripening dates, depending on the variety, vary from August to October.
The collection of fruits is carried out as follows:
- Burlap or film is spread under the bush.
- The plant is shaken so that the nuts fall off the branches.
- Fallen hazelnuts are folded into matter and carried into the room.
Inshell fruits are stored all winter. Unshell nuts must be fried in a pan over high heat for 5 minutes. Also, hazelnuts can be dried in an electric dryer according to the instructions for the device, usually the cooking time is 5-6 hours.
Pests and diseases
Hazel is an unpretentious culture, but moderately resistant to diseases and parasites. At the first symptoms of damage, the shrub should be treated promptly. The main diseases that affect plants are bacterial burns, white rot, brown and black spotting, powdery mildew and rust.
|Bacterial burn||Black spots on leaves, shoots, flowers and fruits in high humidity with heat.||Trim the affected parts, spray the plant abundantly with 3% potassium sulfate solution or 1% copper sulfate solution.|
|White rot||The plant fades, white putrid plaque appears on leaves, branches, roots and nuts.||Trim the affected parts, treat the slices with a pink solution of potassium permanganate, sprinkle liberally with Bordeaux liquid.|
|Brown spotting||Brown spots on the leaves, at first with a darker edging, which gradually stains the entire spot, then bubbles appear on the top of the sheet.||Trim the affected parts, spray with a solution of potassium chloride (30 g) and iodine (40 drops) in 10 liters of water.|
|Black spotting||Black spots appear on the bark and leaves||Trim the affected parts, sprinkle the plant abundantly with 1% solution of copper sulfate.|
|Powdery mildew||The leaves are covered with a white powdery coating, the leaf plates curl and fall off.||Wash off the coating with soapy water, spray the bush with plenty of Bordeaux liquid.|
|Rust||Rusty spots appear on the upper side of the leaf plate, overgrowths form over time.||Trim the affected parts, sprinkle the plant abundantly with 1% solution of copper sulfate.|
Of the pests for the culture, the nut mongrel, the walnut barbel, the hazel pipe-screw and aphid are dangerous.
|Walnut fruit||The parasite lays larvae in the crown, from which beetles with a long proboscis grow. The pest gnaws a nut, eats up the inside and crawls out into the ground.||Loosen the trunk circle, remove the eaten fruit.|
|Walnut Barbel||The pest lays larvae under the bark, which at the end of June begin to gnaw branches from the inside. As a result, the leaves turn yellow, and the shoots dry. In mid-June, an adult lays eggs under the bark of young branches. Larvae appear in late June. In the early days, the larvae gnaw through the core of the branches, as a result of which the shoots begin to dry out, the upper leaves turn yellow, curl and crumble.||Trim the affected shoots.|
|Hazel Pipeline||At the end of May, beetles appear on the leaves, which begin to eat leaves. Parasites eat leaf plates halfway, which makes the leaf dry and curled. In a twisted sheet plate, the hazel pipe-worm lays larvae. The fruits from the attack of the pest do not suffer, however, the shrub loses its decorative properties.||Trim twisted leaves, dig through the soil.|
|Aphid||Light green insects up to 2 mm long stick to the leaves, which feed on plant juice.||Remove aphids from the leaves with soapy water.|
After the preliminary treatment measures have been completed, the plants must be treated with an insecticide. Actellica solution (2.5 ml per 10 l of water) helps with all of these parasites, which plantings are sprayed at the rate of 1 l of the working mixture per 1 m².
It is quite possible to grow hazelnuts in Siberia. The main thing is to choose the right place for landing. It is also important to plant seedlings correctly and take care of them regularly. Shrub development and productivity depend on this.