Rosehip cultivation: breeding methods, planting, care, harvesting
Rosehip has long gained popularity among gardeners. The plant not only gives beneficial fruits, but also can decorate any area. This is a close relative of the garden rose, so the bush has a beautiful flowering. The article discusses the intricacies of growing rose hips.
Rosehip propagation methods
There are several ways to breed rose hips: seed, cuttings and root offspring. Let's consider them in detail.
Seeds need to be collected at the end of summer. This is the most suitable period, because at this time the fruits are ripe, and the seed has not yet had time to become hard. If harvested later, the seedling may not germinate due to the hardened shell. After collecting, the seeds must be washed, dried and mixed with a wet mixture of peat or sand (in a ratio of 1: 4). Thanks to stratification, conditions similar to natural ones are created for them. Keep the mixture in a cool place. Planting of germinated seeds in open ground can be carried out in spring or autumn.
Did you know? You can determine the time by the colors of rose hips: they open at 4-5 in the morning and close at 7-8 in the evening.
But experienced gardeners recommend a procedure in October. The interval between rows should allow weeding. In the spring, for better seed germination above the seat, it is necessary to install a frame with a plastic film. Seedlings are planted after the first 2 leaves grow on them. If you didn’t manage to land in the fall, this can also be done in the spring. Seeds are stored in boxes with sand or peat in a cool room. During the winter, mix the mixture several times.
The best period for this method is summer, when the shoots are actively growing. It is necessary to choose a plant 5–7 years old and cut off powerful shoots from it, on which wood has not yet formed. It is better to carry out the procedure early in the morning, when the plant is as full of moisture as possible.
Important! All sections must be done with special sharp scissors so as not to damage the shoot tissue.
For a good result, you need to do the following:
- cut off an annual shoot on a bush;
- cut the shoot into pieces so that each pruning has 2–4 kidneys (10–15 cm);
- make a horizontal cut above the upper kidney;
- under the lower kidney, make an oblique cut;
- cut the bottom leaves.
As a result, you get cuttings with 2-3 internodes. You can plant immediately in open ground, but more often this is done in a container, greenhouse or greenhouse.Propagation of rose hips by cuttings: 1 - cutting of the cuttings; 2 - cuttings at the time of planting; 3 - cuttings 4 weeks after rooting; 4 - a new plant.
It is a popular breeding species for many crops. To do this, choose the most powerful and healthy bushes. Dates - late autumn or early spring.
There are two ways to carry out the procedure:
- In the first case, the offspring is selected (height 25–40 cm), which is separated by a shovel from the mother bush. This method is carried out both in autumn and spring.
- In the second option, there is no need to separate the subordinate bush. It must be periodically watered and spud. As a result, the offspring must take additional roots. A year later (in the fall), a new bush is separated from the mother plant. In this form, it is left until spring. And as soon as the snow falls and the earth warms up a bit, you can transplant a new bush to a permanent place. The main thing is not to damage the root system.
The rules of planting rose hips
Adhering to the rules of planting rose hips, you can grow elegant bushes of this plant in your area.
Video: landing rose hips
Landing area should be on a hill.Rosehips do not like soil with high acidity. The place should be well lit by the sun and be hidden from direct winds. The lack of groundwater in the area does not harm the plant, but only has a beneficial effect. Since the culture can grow on a site up to 30 years, it is important to foresee the possibility of such a long stay of the bush in one place.
Before planting, the site must be thoroughly cleaned of weeds. It is better to plant decorative fruit crops in isolation from other plants in the garden. A suitable place for this may be the territory along the fence.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting legumes or cereals in the area two years before planting a shrub. You can dig such a place in the second year in the fall after the first cut. In this form, the site is maintained until spring and only in May they conduct a deep digging. Until the fall, weeds should be cleared of the soil, kept clean, and a small digging should be done several times during the summer before planting seedlings. Landing is usually carried out in October-November. Acidic soils must be liming.
As dressings fit:
- nitrogen fertilizers;
- rotted manure;
The optimal size of the pit is 50 × 50 × 50 cm. The interval between the bushes should be 1.5–2 m. This will make it possible to comfortably care for the plants.
In each pit you need to put a mixture:
- 50 g of potassium sulfate;
- 15 kg of humus or compost;
- soil from the upper plant layer;
- 250 g of superphosphate.
The intricacies of rosehip care
Rosehip is not a capricious plant, but if you want crop bushes to please with high productivity and a beautiful view, then efforts must be made.
The plant has a high level of drought tolerance, does not require constant watering. The bushes are enough recharge from periodic rains. But if the weather is dry and hot, which lasts several weeks in a row, then one watering per month will be enough.In season, you can water the plant 3-4 times. For one time, 3 buckets of water are needed. The volume of water on a fruiting bush can be increased.
Particular attention should be paid to young bushes. It is during the formation of the bush that it is necessary to feed. You can start the procedure from the second year after planting.
It is necessary to feed the plant with nitrogen fertilizers 3 times a year:
- For the first time - in the early spring.
- The second time - in the summer during the period of active growth of shoots.
- Last time - in September.
Further, organic matter is enough as fertilizers (3 kg of humus or compost under the bush). Fertilize every 2 years. Do not forget about loosening the soil after fertilizing. After a roundabout place, it is recommended to sprinkle with sawdust or humus.
The first thinning of the bush must be carried out 2-3 years after planting. The optimal number of branches on a bush for good productivity is 15–20. Branches should be no older than 7 years, otherwise they will not be of any benefit - with age they begin to bear fruit poorly. It is good if the bush will consist of branches of different ages.
Did you know? Rosehips have a high concentration of ascorbic acid, which is 10 times higher than the content of the component in blackcurrant, and 50 times — in lemon.
Old and weak shoots are pruned in spring. In autumn, the procedure is not recommended, because the plant may not tolerate the winter period due to fresh cuts on the bush. This is especially true for regions with harsh winters. When cutting a dog rose, it is important not to turn the procedure into a shortening of the bush. This can lead to an increase in overgrowth, which will not bring any benefit.
Pest and Disease Control
Rosehip is a fairly vulnerable plant to diseases.
More often bushes affect such diseases:
- powdery mildew;
- gray, brown, black and dark purple leaf spot;
- stalk cancer.
To protect the bushes, the following measures must be taken:
- regular inspection of the plant and determination of the first signs of the disease;
- pruning of affected branches;
- regular cleaning of fallen leaves and shoots;
- if the disease has spread greatly in the bush, it is necessary to spray with fungicides.
Pests affecting the culture:
- scale insects;
- tincture of tobacco - 200 g of tobacco per 10 liters of water;
- tincture with garlic - 200 g of garlic in 1 liter of water;
- a decoction of wormwood - 1 kg of wormwood per 3 l of water (boil for 15 minutes, then dilute with water - 10 l).
Rosehips are frost-resistant, therefore, does not require special attention before the onset of winter. But the protection of the trunk circle will never be superfluous. This place can be insulated with the help of mulching materials - straw, fallen tree leaves. In regions with severe winters, the bush can be wrapped in burlap.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting rose hips is not a pleasant experience. The bushes have many prickly and sharp thorns, which can seriously injure. The collection must be carried out with special gloves and durable clothing. You need to start the procedure when the fruits turn red. Berries ripen from August to mid-October. Harvest fruits in several stages.
Important! It is necessary to collect rose hips before the first frosts. Low temperature can lower the level of beneficial properties of the berry.
Keep rosehip fresh for a long time will not succeed. Already on the third day after harvesting, the fruits begin to lose their beneficial properties, so the berries must be processed, frozen or dried. As practice shows, more often the berries of this culture are sent for drying. In this form, the fruits retain all the beneficial properties.
Berries are dried in several ways:
- in a dry, darkened place under a canopy (2-3 weeks);
- in the sun with a slight draft (3-4 days);
- in the oven at + 100 ° C (25 min.), and then in a cool room for several days;
- in an electric dryer (up to 24 hours).