How to plant and grow blueberries in Siberia
Blueberry is an unpretentious crop, but not all of its varieties are adapted for cultivation in harsh climatic conditions. About the cultivation of plants in Siberia, as well as the rules for caring for it, read further in the article.
Is blueberry growing in Siberia
Blueberries are grown in summer cottages in all regions of Russia. She fell in love with gardeners for their unpretentiousness in growing and useful properties of berries. Thanks to many years of selective work, the shrub can be grown even in the harsh climate of the Siberian region. In order for the garden blueberry bush to grow and develop well, it is necessary to choose the variety that must be resistant to frost and also immune to diseases.
Did you know? In America, blueberries have long been called “star berries” because of the shape of its flowers, which resemble a star.
List of varieties adapted to severe weather conditions:
- Blue placer It is a medium-sized bush reaching a meter height. Leaf blades are not large, light green in color, with a matte finish. Fruits reach a mass of 0.6 g, have a spherical shape. The skin is resilient, blue with a bluish tinge. The pulp has a sweet taste. From one shrub you can harvest up to 1 kg.
- Taiga beauty. Bush, 90 cm, with a spreading, highly branched crown. Berries - a dark blue hue, with a noticeable blue coating. The fruits have a sour taste. The plant is able to withstand a drop in temperature to -43 ° C.
- Shegarsky grade has a spreading crown, reaches a height of 1 m. Berry picking from the bush can be up to 1.5 kg. Winter hardiness is high, up to -35 ° С.
Planting blueberries in the ground
Planting blueberry seedlings in open ground is best in spring, which will allow the plant to go through the period of adaptation and gain nutrients for the autumn-winter period. The optimal time for the procedure is from mid-April to mid-May.Planting material is purchased at a local nursery. Seedlings choose 2-3 year old, with a closed root system. Before buying, you need to carefully inspect the plant for diaper rash, rot and other defects. If they are present, then it is better to refuse the acquisition.
Plant blueberries in well-lit areas, it is advisable to choose a place where other species of shrubs have not been previously cultivated. The area should be protected from drafts - with the wind, pests and fungal spores can travel long distances.
Important! The soil for planting should pass moisture well; its pH should be slightly acidic or acidic. On soil with neutral acidity, blueberries will develop slowly.
The landing site is prepared in advance, about six months before the procedure. The selected area is cleaned of debris and weed grass. The soil is loosened to a depth of 30 cm. If the pH of the soil is neutral, then it is necessary to increase its acidity, which is achieved by irrigating the plot, based on 1 m², with a solution of 9% apple cider vinegar (100 g per 10 liters of water). For acidification of the soil, you can use sulfur, 70 g per 1 m², which is added for digging to a depth of 30-40 cm .
At what distance are blueberries planted
For better pollination, several varieties of blueberries are grown at once on the site. They should be located close to each other - this will improve the fruitfulness of the crop. Planting shrubs is carried out in compliance with the interval between plants of 1 m. Rows are made at a distance of 1.2 m from each other.
Important! When planting, the root neck must be deepened by 5 cm into the ground - this will protect the plant from freezing during freezing.
Seedlings should be up to 30 cm high and have a root system of at least 20 cm. Therefore, the pit for planting is made shallow - up to 40 cm. The width of the hole should be about 50 cm.
How to fertilize a hole
The landing hole must be prepared 2 weeks before the landing procedure.
Until the middle of the hole is filled with a substrate consisting of:
- topsoil - 5 kg;
- peat - 5 kg;
- needles - 500 g;
- sawdust - 500 g;
- sand - 5 kg;
- sulfur - 50 g.
Regular care of the plant will increase productivity, as well as increase frost resistance and immunity to diseases.During the summer period, it is necessary to loosen the soil near the trunk to a depth of 8 cm. But you should not carry out the procedure more often than 2-3 times a season, because such manipulations lead to an overdry of an earthen coma, which can adversely affect the development of the plant.
Once every 2 years, the procedure of mulching the soil near the trunk is carried out. As a material, you can use needles, oak leaves, peat. Mulching allows you to save the necessary moisture in the soil, and also protects the rhizome from overheating in the hot summer and from freezing in the winter.
The plant does not tolerate moisture stagnation, so watering should be moderate. Blueberries are irrigated 2 times a month. Under each bush make 10 liters of water. The irrigation fluid is pre-sedimented for 2 days and made sure that its temperature is in the range from + 25 ° C to + 35 ° C.
How and what to fertilize
Fertilize the plant begin 2 years after planting.
Blueberry is fed 3 times a year:
- In the period of kidney swelling, you can make mineral fertilizers for digging: 30 g of superphosphate or 30 g of potassium sulfate.
- During flowering, phosphorus (20 g) and potassium (20 g) in sulfate forms are added.
- After harvesting, under digging, 30 g of superphosphate and 30 g of sulfur are embedded in the soil.
Fertilizers must be applied at a distance of 15 cm from the trunk, so as not to harm the bark of the plant. If top dressing is in the form of a solution, then for application it is necessary to dig a special furrow, 5 cm deep, where the composition is poured. Dry fertilizers are scattered over the soil, after which the plant is loosened and watered.
In periods of high humidity, blueberries can be affected by fungal infections.
The most dangerous and common diseases are:
- Gray rot - It affects berries and leaf plates of the bush, leading to their subsidence. The consequence of the disease is the slow growth of the plant and a decrease in its frost resistance.
- Fruit rot - leads to rotting of berries, and also provokes wilting of leaves and branches.
- White spotting - manifests itself in the form of the formation of white spots with a brown border on the leaves of the bush. The disease provokes a decrease in the immunity of the bush and its winter hardiness.
To avoid these diseases, it is necessary to carry out annual preventive treatment of plants, as well as organize agricultural work on the site, aimed at getting rid of fungal spores. Throughout the season, the planted area must be cleaned of plant debris, which is burned after collection. The soil near the trunk is loosened to prevent the spread of fungus.
The treatment of the site is carried out with such drugs:
- Bordeaux liquid, 1% solution - 100 g per 10 liters of water.
- The drug "Topsin-M" - 10 g per 10 liters of water.
- Means "Fundazolum" - 10 g per 10 liters of water.
Treat the site and plants against fungal diseases begin before flowering. The procedure is carried out in dry, calm weather. Irrigation with these fungicides takes place in 2 or 3 stages with an interval of 2 weeks.
Most often, blueberries are invaded by insects such as:
- Aphid - a small insect, up to 4 mm long, feeds on the juice of leaf blades and flower ovaries of the plant. It leads to a slowdown in the development of shrubs, a drop in productivity.
- Leaflet - a butterfly whose offspring eats the entire leafy part of the plant and the fruit. Loss of yield.
- Kidney tick - a microscopic pest, reaching a length of only 0.2 mm. Female ticks winter in the buds of plants, and with the advent of spring, they begin to actively reproduce offspring. Newly found individuals spread throughout the bush and suck the juice from shoots and leaves.
To protect blueberries from pests, you can use folk remedies and chemicals.
Insecticides used to control pests:
- "Karbofos" - 5 ml per 10 liters of water.
- “Skor” - 2 ml per 10 l of water.
- "Azofos" - 100 ml per 10 liters of water.
Among folk remedies, the most effective are:
- Soapy ash solution. It is prepared from 100 g of soap, 300 g of wood ash and 10 l of water.
- Irrigation broth with wormwood. To make a solution, you need to boil 3 kg of wormwood in 10 liters of water for 30 minutes. Then add another 10 liters of water to the resulting broth and irrigate the plants with it.
- Infusion of potato tops. The solution is prepared from 4 kg of the aerial part of the potato bush, 8 l of water. Pour the tops with liquid and insist for a day.
Harvesting and storage
You need to harvest blueberries after the berries have fully ripened, then they will taste good and will retain the maximum amount of nutrients. The fruits are torn from the branches and placed in wicker baskets, the bottom of which should be lined with paper.
Did you know? Blueberry muffins are a symbol of Minnesota in North America.
They can also be immediately collected in containers for storage in the refrigerator. At temperatures up to + 25 ° C, blueberries last about 48 hours. Storage in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 4 ° С will allow saving fruits for 10 days.
Blueberries are grown for their unpretentious care and the benefits of its fruits. Thanks to the work of breeders, this shrub is available for cultivation not only in regions with a southern and temperate climate, but also in the harsh conditions of the Siberian region.