How to handle blackberries: spring events from diseases and pests
Blackberry - is a shrub with delicious, rich in vitamins and minerals berries. Due to its useful properties and unpretentiousness in care, many gardeners fell in love, so this culture is increasingly found in garden areas. But it is not always possible to get a good crop or to grow a healthy bush, because pests and various diseases interfere with this. This article discusses what are dangerous diseases and insects, as well as how to deal with them.
Features of spring blackberry care
The rules of spring care for blackberries include - removing shelter, tying up, pruning shoots, watering and feeding shrubs.
Did you know? Blackberry is considered a good honey plant, and blackberry honey perfectly replaces chemical preservatives in the preparation of various dishes and food storage. It is also widely used in traditional medicine.
The best time to remove the shelter from the blackberry is when the snow has melted, and night frosts do not exceed –8 ° С. In addition, choose a sunny day, so that the plant has time to dry well. If the bushes were covered with non-woven material, then moisture accumulates under it, which contributes to the development of diseases.
The first pruning can be carried out in the second year after planting, so that the bush does not turn into thickets and gives a good harvest. Remove dry, damaged and poorly developed shoots under the root. After wintering, cut off the frozen parts to the first formed kidney.
Since the blackberry has long and flexible shoots, they need to be tied to trellises. This design can be made of wood or metal in this way:
- In the ground near the shrub, dig supports up to 2.5 m long, at a distance of 3 m from each other. The soil around the pillars should be well compacted, if they are metal then you can concrete.
- Pull the wire in several rows on them, the gaps between them are 50 cm.
- Shoot the shoots in a fan style.
- Too much pulling the place of the ligament is not necessary so that the vine does not break or there are no excesses.
Watering the crop
It is necessary to carry out regular watering of the plant two to three times a week, about 10 l of water is enough for one bush. Especially irrigate the soil around the shrub during flowering, ovary and fruit ripening. Also, if the season is dry. It is better to water in the evening, and after moistening, the soil should be loosened so that a crust does not form that prevents evaporation of moisture and air access to the roots.
Spring fertilizing with chemical fertilizers is carried out by sowing under a bush, this will require 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of potash fertilizers, 90-100 g of superphosphate per 1 m2. After the soil is dug up no more than 7 cm deep so as not to damage the root system.
How to add organics
Organic fertilizers (manure, peat, compost) are dissolved in water in a ratio of 1: 8 and the solution is poured at the base of a blackberry bush. To prevent the liquid from spreading, you can dig a ditch around the planting, with a depth of not more than 10 cm. For one bush, one bucket of substance is enough. Organic dressing is carried out in several stages: during flowering and fruit ovary, during the ripening period of the berries, and also in autumn - before preparing the bush for winter.If fertilizers were applied during planting, then they begin to be added in the third year of growth. After all, an excess of top dressing will give only growth without fruits.
Types of diseases, treatment features
There are several types of diseases that cause blackberries, these are viral and bacterial infections, as well as non-infectious diseases.Each variety requires a special treatment approach.
Infectious diseases of viral origin
Diseases of viral origin include: rust, anthracnose, purple spotting, botritis, powdery mildew, etc. Various solutions are used for their treatment, and the damaged shoots are removed and burned. You also need to choose varieties resistant to these diseases.
Infectious diseases of bacterial origin
The most common and dangerous bacterial disease is cancer. This disease affects the root system and stems of the bush, it manifests itself in the form of growths of various sizes of green, black or dark brown. Bacteria from neoplasms enter the soil, maintaining activity throughout the year, which leads to further infection of new plants. There is no cure for this ailment, so I dig up a bush and burn it.
A plant may also suffer from non-infectious diseases caused by a shortage or excess of chemical fertilizers. Therefore, before you begin to apply mineral preparations to the soil under the bushes, you must carefully read the instructions for use. With a lack of elements, the following symptoms appear:
- nitrogen - sprouts develop poorly, become thin and brittle, leaves turn yellow, small berries;
- boron - leaves get sick with chlorosis, sprinkle, tops of shoots dry, flowering and fruit ovaries decrease;
- iron - berries wither and sprinkle, young foliage turns yellow;
- calcium - young leaves turn yellow-green, the upper buds die off, the fruit ovaries rot, the shoots dry out over time;
- phosphorus is a red-green foliage, their growth slows down, flowering and ripening of berries is delayed.
Blackberries are considered quite resistant to disease, but there is still the likelihood of contracting common diseases, which are described below.
Important! Before starting treatment of shrubs with chemicals, you need to carefully read the instructions for use. In addition, you must work in protective clothing - overalls, gloves, a mask, rubber boots. Wash hands thoroughly with soap after the procedure.
Rust is the most common disease. It appears on the foliage with bright orange tuberous spots that merge over time, the leaves turn yellow prematurely, dry and fall off. Infected fruits become one-sided and curved, lose their taste, and crumble. Young shoots are poorly developed, they are thin and weak, the leaves on them are deformed and have a yellowish tint.If signs of the disease are detected, it is necessary to tear off the damaged foliage and carefully treat the bushes on all sides with Kuproksat, Champion, Flint and others.
Anthracnose is a fungal infection. It appears in the spring on young shoots with small purple spots, in the future, the affected areas increase and merge with other foci of the disease. The leaves are covered with dark brown spots. Sores form on the berries, they are deformed and sprinkled before they ripen.You can protect the bushes from the disease with the help of fungicides "Fundazim", "Kuproksat", "Topaz", "Bardo Blue".
Purple Spotting (Didimella)
Purple spotting or didimella is a fungal disease, the development of which is facilitated by high humidity. This disease manifests itself mainly at the base of shoots and in the sinuses of leaflets in the form of dirty purple spots up to 1 cm in size. Over time, the disease spreads throughout the bush, the lesion becomes brown. For prevention and treatment, spraying plants with 5-7% urea solution is used.Of the chemical drugs used to destroy this disease, use Kuproksat, Fundazol, Topaz.
Septoria (white spotting)
Septoria or spotting - Appears on the leaves of the plant in the form of small smooth round spots of dirty white or brown color with black spots (these are spores of the fungus). Over time, the foci increase, the foliage dries and falls off. The berries are covered with mucus and rot.Treatment of shrubs consists in spraying with solutions of biological products “Fitosporina”, “Alirina B” and “Gamair”.
Botritis (gray rot)
Botritis or gray rot - this disease is caused by parasitic fungi that winter in the soil and on plant debris. Roots, stems, fruits and leaves are affected, a light gray coating appears on them. The lesions become brown and rot, which leads to a loss of yield, in the future and the bush itself. To protect the plant, you need to process it with a solution - fungicide with iprodinone "Aquaflo", "Rovral" and "Kaptan". It can be applied no more than two times in a row then alternated with fungicides of a different principle of action.
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that begins to develop in the summer in dry, hot weather with sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity. On the plant, it manifests itself in the form of a powdery-white coating. The lower leaves are the first to be affected, then spreads to young shoots and fruits. Subsequently, dew drops appear on the lesion sites, which means that the fungal spores have matured. Subsequently, the bush loses resistance to frost.
To combat this ailment, the chemicals “Topaz”, “Bravo”, “Fundazol” are used.
Among insects, there are 10% "harmful" that feed on certain cultivated plants. Dangerous pests that cause damage to the blackberry include - the bear, grubs and their larvae, leaf sawfly, aphids, ticks. The appearance of these parasites is described below in the article.
Medvedka is a large insect up to 5 cm long and up to 1 cm in diameter, dark brown in color. The abdomen is spindle-shaped, at its end there are two filiform cerci up to 1 cm long. The head is partially protected by a hard chest chest. It has two faceted eyes, antennae, antennas, two pairs of tentacles which are located around the oral apparatus.You can get rid of this pest with the help of Medvetox, Rembek, Medvetsid.
When folded, the wings exceed the length of the body. Three pairs of paws of olive shade, the front legs are modified and designed for digging the ground. Digs tunnels up to 2 m deep; they hibernate and lay larvae. During the laying of underground corridors it gnaws at the roots of the plant (this is detrimental to the culture).
May bugs, their larvae, grubs
Chafer beetle is a dangerous pest, up to 3.5 cm in size, black or brown in color. The body is oval in shape, covered with small white, yellow or gray hairs. On sides 1–5 abdominal sternites with white spots from dense villi. Three pairs of legs, on the forelimbs 2-3 teeth. The shield is semi-oval, smooth, glossy. Pygidium large, oblique, triangular elongated in the process. The head is covered with long hairs, palps elongated, pointed, slightly curved.To combat them, the chemicals “Aktara”, “Boverin”, “Rembek” are used.
The antennae of the male are large, composed of seven plates. The head of the larva of a khrushchev is large, round, brown in color, a body of a white-yellow hue, elongated, with three pairs of legs. They inhabit and develop in soil at a depth of up to 30 cm (in the dry season up to 50–70 cm), feed on plant roots. The development phase from larva to imago reaches 5 years.
Important! Maybug larvae live in the soil, they can be dug up and destroyed, but you need to dig carefully so as not to damage the root system.
Aphids - a small insect 2 mm in size, light green or pale yellow, has a special proboscis that damages leaves and shoot surface. Lives in large colonies, eats the juice of young shoots of plants, while secreting a sweet liquid that attracts other "harmful" insects. Lays eggs (larvae) on leaves, can breed three generations per season, and hibernates in the root system and branches of the bush. It is considered a carrier of various infectious diseases.You can fight this pest with the help of biological products “Fitoverm”, “Entobacterin” (it is better to use it on hot days), “Tanrek”, “Lepidocide”.
Leaf sawfly - hymenoptera, up to 8 mm long, black, with sparse hairs, grayish wings. Light eggs are laid on the bottom of the leaf, the incubation period lasts 6-8 days. Hatched larvae are called “false caterpillars” since they look like caterpillars, but have 6–8 pairs of abdominal legs, while in real 5 pairs. They crawl all over the bush, eating foliage, because of which it can dry out and crumble prematurely. In this case, the yield decreases by more than half.
The bush is sprayed with insecticides Decis, Karbofos, Kinmiks
Ticks are arthropods of the arachnid class, 0.2–0.4 mm long. Parasitizes throughout the shrub, especially found on the lower part of the leaf under a thin cobweb and on the fruits. They feed on the juice of the plant. Affected leaves curl, turn yellow and fall. Harvest of fruits is falling, young shoots are poorly developed, which in winter leads to their freezing.They get rid of ticks with the help of biological preparations “Akarin”, “Fitoverm”, etc.
Spring treatment for diseases and pests: what and how
After carrying out all spring activities to care for blackberries, an important step is the treatment of harmful insects and infections. To do this, use such insecticides:
- Karbafos - relates to organophosphorus compounds (FOS). To spray shrubs, it is necessary to make a solution of 75 g of the product per 10 liters of water, 10 liters of liquid is required for 10 bushes. The procedure should be carried out in calm sunny weather no more than twice a season, morning or evening, air temperature should not exceed + 15 ° С.
- Actellik - a chemical agent. A solution will require 2 ml of the drug per 1.3 liters of water, this amount will be enough to process 7²m. Perform spraying in calm weather, the second time can be repeated after 7-10 days.
To protect the blackberry from pests, infections and get a good harvest, it is necessary to carry out preventive work:
- cut damaged branches;
- weed grass around the bush;
- loosen the soil;
- to fertilize;
- inspect the bush for pests and diseases;
- timely spray with medicinal products.
Despite all the above diseases and pests from which blackberry bushes can suffer, with the proper and timely care of the bush, these negative consequences can be avoided. For this, the blackberry will “thank” with a high-quality and tasty crop.