Dogwood breeding methods step by step and care for it
Modern gardening is replete with a huge variety of fruit bushes, among which one of the most valuable is dogwood. Many gardeners are in a hurry not only to grow the most productive bush, but also to propagate it. However, this procedure is not always successful. The article step by step examines the main methods of propagation of dogwood, and also lists the main conditions for its long and successful fruiting.
Dogwood propagation methods
In botany, there are only two generally accepted methods of plant propagation, the so-called sexual and vegetative. In the first case, to obtain new specimens of the species, derivatives of pollination are used, which contain the common genetic material of the mother forms (seeds). The second is based on the cultivation of daughter plants genetically repeating the original bush (rooting of parts of shoots).
Growing dogwood from bone
Seed germination is one of the most complex and time-consuming dogwood reproduction processes. This is due to the fact that such biological material is characterized by low viability, therefore seedlings appear only under the most favorable conditions. At the same time, dogwood seedlings grow rather slowly and enter fruiting no earlier than 7 years after germination. That is why only breeders decide to grow shrubs by this method during the breeding of a new variety.
However, in the absence of planting material, gardeners often decide to sprout seeds. For this, several green fruits are selected that are devoid of any pathological changes and infections, as well as pests. Seeds are carefully selected from each berry, and then they are immediately sown in the ground in a permanent place. Prior to wintering, seedlings are provided with moderate watering and protection against weeds. The first seedlings of such seeds appear no earlier than next spring.
Did you know? Dogwood is one of the oldest fruit bushes used by man. Its useful properties were taken into service about 5 thousand years ago.
Video: Breeding dogwood from bone
Maintaining high humidity, the seeds germinate for about 12 months, after which young sprouts need to be dived into separate containers with well-fertilized sandy loam soil. Under such conditions, plants should be kept for at least 1–2 years, as soon as the seedling is extended to 10–15 cm, it can be successfully transplanted to the garden. The procedure is carried out around the end of April, while the distance between neighboring plants should be at least 20 cm.
Propagation by cuttings
Cutting dogwood is carried out in two ways: green or lignified parts of the bush. Green stalks are selected approximately in the first half of summer; they are served by the central part of annual shoots, about 10–20 cm long. On the obtained fragments, one third of the foliage should be removed, after which the prepared material should be soaked in a solution of any growth stimulant (for example, the preparation “Heteroauxin”) for 5-6 hours. Then, each seedling is planted in partial shade in loose and well-fertilized soil (about 5-6 kg of humus / 1 m² must be added to the soil), providing moderate humidity.
The lignified parts of the shrub are selected in late autumn, a few weeks before preparation for wintering. Suitable for this is the middle part of young shoots with an age of not more than 3-4 years, abundantly covered with leaves (15–20 cm long). Planting material is planted in the soil around mid-April, until that time it is stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of +5 ... + 10 ° С.
Before planting on the cuttings, damaged and wilted foliage is removed, after which they are soaked for 5-6 hours in a solution of any growth stimulant. Lignified cuttings are planted in well-fertilized and loose soil, with moderate watering throughout the season they will successfully root already in winter.
Important! Only mature bushes, at least 7–10 years old, devoid of traces of damage by insect pests or specific infections, are suitable for picking cuttings.
Vaccination (budding) is ideal for growing dogwood in those areas where this shrub is found in the wild and often becomes a weed crop. In order to ennoble such a bush, it is enough to plant only a small fragment of the fruit species. Such a procedure is performed approximately in August-first half of September, while spring vaccination is considered ineffective.
The main technology for performing budding has identical steps, like grafting any fruit tree or shrub:
- A small fragment of the shoot should be cut from the scion along with a viable leaf bud (the main cut should be as smooth as possible). Moreover, for the success of the procedure, at least 2-3 kidneys should be vaccinated.
- On the rootstock (wild shrub), you should choose the most healthy young branch, no more than 3 years old, and then create a small T-shaped section on it approximately in the middle. They do this so that it is possible to separate the lignified bark, leaving the core intact.
- After that, with a clerical knife, you need to carefully separate the bark from the wood, and in the resulting "pocket" put the scion with a kidney and fix the vaccination with adhesive tape.
- If the process went well, the kidney remains viable and will not fade. After this, after approximately 3 weeks, the adhesive tape must be removed.
- In the spring, a young shoot will start to grow from the stock, gradually it should be cultivated, and all nearby ones should be removed. Thus, from the grafted kidney, a central branch should form, which will become the basis of the entire bush.
Propagation by layering
This method of reproduction can be called one of the easiest ways to get a full garden in just a few seasons. Receive branches from young shoots no more than 2 years old, their top must be dug to a depth of about 5 cm, and a small hill about 10 cm high should be poured on top. Rooting of shoots takes place throughout the year, all this time the soil is regularly moistened throughout the growing season of the bush.
As soon as the seedlings form the root system, the shoot is pruned and transplanted, and a full-grown stalk should be formed, at least 25 cm long. You can take the bushes throughout the growing season, but the beginning of September is best suited for this, and at least 3-5 layering.
Did you know? Dogwood is on the list of the richest vitamin C fruits: only 300 g of berries can satisfy the body's daily need for this substance.
Dogwood is considered an unpretentious garden crop, so even after planting young seedlings in open soil, they do not require complicated care. The main thing is not to forget to water the seedlings well. In the first year, this is done 2 times a week, the next two - about 1-2 times a week.
Subsequently, watering is carried out as necessary, as the substrate dries. The procedure is carried out so as to completely wet the topsoil, about 50 cm deep.In addition, as the bush grows and develops, it is recommended that it be carefully trimmed.
Pruning a shrub is to create a tall, highly productive bole, about 50 cm high. The main basis of such a shrub is about 5 skeletal branches located in several tiers. Pruning often starts from the 3rd year, all lateral processes are trimmed on the bush, retaining the apex with several rudiments of skeletal branches.
As the plants grow and develop, only the most powerful and active branches leave it, all other shoots are removed. After several seasons of such care, the bush will acquire a characteristic longline structure, after which the skeletal branches should be cut to one length and shortened by no less than a third.
Important! Shrub formation is best done in the spring, the most suitable time for sanitary cleaning is the second half of the autumn.
Dogwood pests and diseases
In most cases, dogwood has a fairly high immunity and resistance to all kinds of diseases and pests, so gardeners practically do not encounter this problem. However, with various errors in the care, young seedlings can still be affected by a variety of invasions.Among pests most often on cornel can be found a worm, which can be dealt with using any complex insecticide (Tagore, Novaktion, Kemifos, Fufanon, Danadim, etc.).
To prevent the occurrence of the pest, it is necessary to dispose of the infected planting material, as well as to combat the spread of ants in the area.
The most dangerous infections affecting dogwood:
|Title||Preparations for the prevention and treatment|
|Rust||“Kuproksat”, “Strobi”, “Vectra”, “Poliram”, Bordeaux mixture|
|Powdery mildew||“Hom”, “Quadrice”, “Skor”, “Vitaros”, “Previkur”|
|Spotting||4% solution of Bordeaux mixture|
Dogwood is one of the most slowly growing fruit bushes in horticulture, so propagating it is not so simple. However, with proper care and daily attention, getting a productive shrub garden is quite simple. For this, you can use almost any type of plant propagation. The most effective and simplest of them is considered to be the vegetative (asexual) method, which involves rooting fragments of the mother bush.