How to propagate currants in autumn with cuttings
Self-propagation of currants has long been recognized in gardening as better than buying ready-to-plant in a store or market. Despite the fact that this plant is the most suitable for propagation by cuttings, this method of increasing the volume of the grown culture is the most popular.
Pros and cons of propagation by cuttings
- The obvious advantages of cutting black currants for the purpose of its further propagation are the following:
- the plant takes root easily, develops quickly and bears fruit;
- when using the cuttings method for a year, it is possible to obtain from 20 to 100 potentially marketable currant bushes that retain varietal characteristics;
- given the opportunity to prepare a large amount of planting material.
Did you know? By the level of usefulness, currant leaves are not inferior to the berries of the plant: 1 tablespoon of ground dried foliage contains the same amount of ascorbic acid as in whole lemon. But this applies only to blackcurrant and its leaves, collected immediately after flowering, as in the process of harvesting these parts of the plant lose vitamin in 10-fold volume.
- Cons of grafting culture:
- with this vegetative method of propagation, all the advantages and disadvantages of the plant are transferred to the young bush from the mother plant, and gardeners can not always be 100% sure that the mother bush is completely healthy and the most suitable;
- the complexity of this method of propagation of currants;
- the percentage of survival of the culture in the case of cuttings is 85-90%, in contrast to 100% when propagated by layering or dividing the bush.
When is it better to cut
The time for cutting the currant depends on which stems (young or already lignified) you want to plant. If green, then it is optimal to do this in mid-June - early July (the period of active growth of the plant), if the shoots are lignified, then in late September - mid-October, or in early spring (when the process of sap flow is weakened).
Reproduction of black and red currants in autumn
Planting cuttings of black and red currants is carried out only with sleeping buds on them. In blackcurrant varieties, the sleep stage occurs in late September - early October, with regard to varieties of red berries, the dormancy phase in this case coincides with the end of summer.
Important! For the purpose of successful propagation, it is preferable to use the middle parts of the shoots, since the lower cuttings take root very poorly, and the upper ones do not winter well.
Currants are propagated by green or young unbroken cuttings in the summer season (late May – early June with an increase in shoots of 10–20 cm), therefore, cuttings can be cut only in woody parts in autumn.
The method of cuttings of currants using lignified shoots is used in early autumn (no later than mid-October) or in early spring. For this, one-year-old shoots, previously cut from healthy and fertile bushes, are better suited. Some people combine the preparation of cuttings with spring pruning.
Rules for harvesting cuttings
What should be paid attention to and what should be done when pruning cuttings for their further harvesting:
Did you know? In the old scriptures, the currant was called the “monastery berry”, since it was grown only in monasteries and was widely used by monks for both medicinal and nutritional purposes. Information about this can be found in the chronicles of the 9th century about the monasteries of Pskov and Novgorod, and in the local area began to grow currants only after 5 centuries.
- completely healthy, bringing a rich and high-quality crop, as well as currant bushes with clean grades are suitable for extracting cuttings;
- lignified processes must be fully ripe, have a characteristic diameter and length (optimal values are 6 mm and 12-15 cm, respectively), several leaflets (3-4 pcs.) and kidneys (5-6 pcs.);
- the longer the length of the handle, the more nutrients it contains, but there is a flip side to the coin - the less currant bushes you get as a result;
- an incision at the top is made at an angle of 90 degrees with a sharp secateurs, previously treated with boiling water, above the kidney (at least 1 cm from it);
- the lower incision is also made with a sharp cutting device, but at an oblique inclination (45 degrees) and always under the lower kidney, observing a distance similar to the first case;
- Before direct planting, lignified cuttings are poured with special growth-promoting agents and left to infuse for 12 to 14 hours (heteroauxin or indolyl-butyric acid, root or epin);
- Storage should be carried out in a cool and dark place.
Video: harvesting currant cuttings
Methods of rooting lignified cuttings
- For the quickest survival, it is advisable to plant lignified cuttings in specially made trenches from dug up earth (subject to the depth of the shovel bayonet - 15-20 cm). In this case, the deepening of the processes themselves should not be more than 2.5 cm.
- Landing is carried out by the method “along a stretched cord” with the obligatory observance of 10-15 cm between roots. It is also necessary to ensure that the row spacing is at least 40 cm (to facilitate the care of plants and normal recovery in case of transplantation to a permanent place of cultivation).
- A pair of buds are left on top on the cuttings, while one of them is located at ground level. In order to more densely root, it is necessary to densely compress the processes with soil.
- To increase the level of soil fertility, rotted manure or old compost with coarse sand is added to the trenches.
- In order to avoid drying of the earth in rows, it is necessary to cover its surface with mulch from peat or humus (the layer should be at least 3 - maximum 5 cm). You should also water, sprinkle with organic fertilizers and cover the planting site with a dark or transparent film (with holes for air exchange made by scissors).
Important! It is advisable to plant currant cuttings in an oblique way in the direction from south to north for rationally complete coverage of cultural rows. The most suitable soil type is loamy.
- For full survival of green currant cuttings, they need to carry out daily 4-5-time spraying and ventilation for 2-3 weeks.
- After that, the number of moisturizing approaches can be reduced and nitrogen fertilizer can be started.
- After 30 days, the film can be removed daily for a couple of hours with a gradual increase in the time interval. You can completely remove the protection only when the leaves become green and resilient.
- The rooting of lignified cuttings planted in the fall will be carried out due to the supply of nutrients accumulated in the processes, as well as the heat and humidity of the earth. Thus, they will take root already in October-December.
- The next year, until spring, roots grow so long that they themselves can get underground water for food.
- With the onset of autumn, young commodity bushes should be formed at the landing sites, which can be transplanted to a long-term growing place. If this does not happen within the specified time for some reason or taking into account the circumstances, then the landing is left in the same place for another seasonal period.
The most common deviations from the rules, which can reduce all efforts to reproduce currants at home to zero:
- non-observance of the terms of cuttings and planting, arbitrary change in the vegetation phase and the absence of rooting;
- planting the wrong parts of the cuttings (upper or lower instead of the necessary middle ones);
- damage by secateurs in case of improper incision, infection;
- the age of the maternal shrub is older than 7 years;
- the interaction of moist soil with extra leaves (near rooting), as a result of which infection and decay of the stalk occurs.
Did you know? In Latin, the name of the currant sounds like “ribes”, and the ancient Arabs came up with it: until 711, when their tribes conquered Spain, they used a lot of rhubarb, which they called “ribas,” in their daily diet, but this plant on new lands and they did not find its fruits. Having once paid attention to the red, previously unknown, berry (currant), the Arabs soon discovered that its taste and smell vaguely resemble rhubarb, so they began to call the fruits of the new culture the same way.
Thus, subject to all the rules for autumn cutting of currants, you will replenish your garden plot with even more shrubs of this wonderful plant and, therefore, will make a harvest of tasty and healthy berries richer.