Edible sweet honeysuckle Maria - the main characteristics of the variety
Honeysuckle Maria is one of the best edible varieties. It has a number of advantages, attracts gardeners with its large-fruited, decorative, tasty fruits and unpretentiousness in care. Description, basic characteristics, recommendations for planting and care of this crop are contained in the article.
Description of a variety of honeysuckle Maria
When choosing a honeysuckle variety, you should first of all pay attention to the ripening period, size and taste of berries, productivity, exactingness to environmental conditions, suitability for growing in a specific region.
Maria belongs to the varieties of the South Ural selection. Employees of the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato (Chelyabinsk, Russia) in the 90s of the last century worked on its development. The plans were to create varieties for growing in the Urals. It was bred by free pollination of the Kamchatka honeysuckle.
Did you know? Honeysuckle wood is highly durable. Previously, it was used for the manufacture of shoe nails and rake teeth.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Bushes grow medium in height and not too sprawling. Shoots are medium in thickness, with slight pubescence. The leaves are small in size, dark green in color. The top sheet plate is matte, has a slight pubescence.
The ripening of berries occurs in the mid-early period - in mid-June. The first time the plant bears fruit in the second year after planting. Fruits are formed large, weighing 0.9 g. They have an elongated oval shape, the skin is tuberous, thin, dark blue. The pulp is characterized by tenderness, sweet taste, aroma.
Honeysuckle fruits contain from 5 to 10% sugars, 1.5-4.5% organic acids, 0.8% pectin. They contain vitamin C, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid, potassium, copper, iodine. Productivity of the variety is 2–2.5 kg per bush. The berries after ripening for a long time hang on the branches, not crumbling.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- In their reviews, gardeners and gardeners who already had experience in growing honeysuckle Maria, noted her such positive characteristics:
- excellent taste of fruits;
- ability of berries to tolerate transportation well;
- unwillingness of fruits to fall;
- compactness of the crown of bushes;
- increased frost resistance;
- good tolerance of dry periods, heat;
- high level of productivity;
- decorative appearance.
Important! No flaws were detected in the variety.
You can get high and high-quality yields from honeysuckle if you choose a good place, observe planting technology and carry out regular care.
For honeysuckle, you must choose a site that is under the sun all day. Shrubs growing in the shade have reduced yields, their fruits are small and sour. The place where the berry culture grows should be protected from drafts. Its optimal placement on the site is near a solid fence.
Since honeysuckle does not grow in wetlands, it is important to make sure that groundwater does not come closer to the soil surface than 1.5 m before planting. Light, fertilized loams or sandy loam with weakly acidic or neutral reaction are considered the best soil for honeysuckle. Sandy and swampy land is not suitable for this berry crop.
Landing and care
Honeysuckle is planted with one to two year old seedlings rooted by cuttings. You should buy them in a specialized garden store or a well-established nursery.
Planting material should be selected healthy, with a trunk up to 1.5 m high, developed roots, a root neck without growths and spots.
Landing can be scheduled for spring (mid-April) or autumn (in the first ten days of October). It is important not to be late with planting seedlings in the ground.
In spring, you should be in time before the sap flow begins, since planting material planted after the start of the growing season will not take root well and will often hurt.
In autumn, it is also important to adhere to the recommended dates, so that the plant has time to adapt before the onset of frost.
During spring planting, you need to take care of the preparation of the place from October. It is important to clean the weeds, plant debris, make digging on the bayonet of a shovel. Planting pits can be prepared 1.5–2 weeks before planting seedlings. They should be made in size 40 × 40 × 40 cm.
The distance between plants should be observed at 1.5–2 m, between rows - 2-3 m. The soil extracted from the pits must be mixed with humus or decomposed manure (10–12 kg), double superphosphate (100 g), potassium sulfate (30 g), wood ash (300 g).
Planting seedlings is necessary, adhering to this technology:
- At the bottom of the pit, make a hill of fertilized soil.
- Put on it the roots of the seedling, evenly distributing them.
- Fill the hole with the remaining soil.
- Watering, spending 10 liters of water.
- Cover the near-stem zone with a layer of mulch from the ground, peat, humus.
When planting honeysuckle, the root neck must be deepened by 5 cm.
Caring for planted honeysuckle is not burdensome, it will not be difficult even for people unaware of gardening. This culture needs watering, top dressing, pruning, loosening, weeding and mulching the trunk circle.
How often and how plentifully it is necessary to moisten plantings depends on weather conditions. With normal rainfall, 1-2 watering per week is sufficient. In dry periods, the amount of moisture needed to be increased. The approximate consumption of water for one mature shrub is 10 liters. So that moisture does not quickly evaporate, but reaches the bottom of the roots, moisturizing must be done in the morning or in the evening, when there is no scorching sun.
The day after watering or precipitation, you need to loosen the trunk circle. This will avoid the formation of crusts on the soil surface, improve the moisture and air conductivity of the earth. The procedure must be carried out carefully so as not to damage the root system of shrubs located in the upper layers of the soil.
In order to prevent severe clogging of the site, the development of diseases and the invasion of pests, it is necessary to regularly weed. Mandatory removal of weeds with root, as they quickly recover.
If it is not possible to often take care of the honeysuckle, then reducing the number of irrigation, loosening and weeding will allow covering the near-trunk zone with a layer of mulch from straw, mowed grass, peat, sawdust, humus. It should be 3-4 cm high. Mulch will maintain the required moisture level in the soil and inhibit weed growth.
To increase the number of fruits, improve their quality and strengthen plants allow fertilizer application. For honeysuckle, two top dressings will be sufficient - in spring and autumn. For the first time, nitrogen-containing fertilizers or complex mixtures are introduced.
In the second - phosphorus and potassium complexes (superphosphate - 30 gm / m², potassium salt - 20 g / m²), as well as wood ash. Regular top dressing is started 3 years after planting. Prior to this, the plant will have enough of those substances that were laid in the landing pit.
Important! It is not worth adding organic fertilizers annually. For honeysuckle, feeding with humus is enough, rotted compost with an interval of 3-4 years.
Honeysuckle Mary, like most varieties, is self-infertile. In order to get regular and plentiful harvests, in the immediate vicinity of the garden should plant 2-3 other varieties.The best pollinators for Maria are Gorlinka, Long-fruited, Amazon.
Pest and Disease Control
As gardeners cultivating Maria cultivar note, when conducting proper agricultural technology, it is not damaged by diseases and harmful insects.
If outbreaks of diseases or invasion of parasites were previously noticed on the site, then it is worth resorting to preventive spraying:
- against fungal infections - “Fitosporin”, “Alirin” (in accordance with the instructions);
- against the leaflet - “Biotlin”, “Bitoxibacillin”, “Actara”, “Fufanon”;
- against aphids, ticks and scale insects - “Actellikom”, “Fitovermom”;
- against the fingerfly - "Karbofos".
The presence of fungal infections will be evidenced by spots of different color on the foliage, on which spores of fungi are visible over time - black dots, gray fluffy plaque. You can find out that the leaflet settled on the plant by leaves twisted into a tube.
Aphids cause leaves to curl and fall. This small insect can be found on the lower leaf plate.
The harmful activity of other sucking insects, such as ticks and scale insects, also leads to drying, yellowing, and falling of foliage. The first pest covers the plant with a thin cobweb. The second - can be found on the stem. He has a hard shell. Fingerfly caterpillars lead to darkening, wrinkling and falling berries, as well as a sharp decrease in shrub yields.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Honeysuckle pruning is a mandatory and important procedure. It is necessary to prevent the development of infections, improve fruiting and fruit quality. It should be carried out in the spring - before entering the vegetation, and in the fall - after harvesting the fruits. In spring, diseased, deformed, damaged, dry, branches growing inside the crown are subject to removal.
In autumn, fruit-bearing branches that are 5 years old, as well as those that caused the thickening of the crown, are cut from shrubs. Pruning should be carried out with a sharp disinfected garden tool. The places of cuts must be treated with copper sulfate and glossed over with garden var or RanNet. This will prevent insects and infections from entering the plant.
Honeysuckle has a high level of winter hardiness. It easily survives 50-degree frosts and can withstand return frosts down to -7 ° С. Therefore, she does not need shelter. Preparation for winter consists in cleaning and digging the site, making potash and phosphorus fertilizers, and pruning. If the autumn is dry, then you need to carry out water-charging irrigation. Also, shrubs should be protected from rodents by covering them with spruce branches.
Video: winter honeysuckle preparation
Harvesting and transportation of the crop, shelf life of berries
Fruiting honeysuckle lasts 1.5–2 months. Berries are harvested several times. The first harvesting is carried out when part of the fruit reaches the size and weight stated in the description, turns blue, becomes sweet. Berries are picked by hand, carefully separating them from the stem and laying in a small container in volume. If the fruits will be processed, then they will be able to collect faster by crushing on the fabric covered under the bush.
Did you know? Honeysuckle is especially popular in Japan. They call it “Haskap", they make wine, pastille and even pasta on its basis.
Honeysuckle storage is carried out in cold conditions. The shelf life of the berries is small - up to 5 days. To keep the fruits longer, they can be dried or frozen. In frozen form, fruits can be eaten throughout the year, in dried - for two. After defrosting, the berries do not lose their shape, taste and beneficial properties.
From honeysuckle, aromatic jam is obtained that tastes somewhat like cherry, as well as delicious compote, jam, juice, smoothies. In drinks, the berry goes well with strawberries.If the fruits need to be transported, they should immediately be collected in containers for transportation, and then quickly placed in cool conditions.
To summarize the above, we note that the variety of honeysuckle Maria is well suited for cultivation in suburban and household plots. It does not cause much trouble and does not take a lot of time. Spending only minimal but regular care, you can get tasty and healthy berries every year for 20-30 years.