Blackcurrant Tatyana's day - the main characteristics of the variety
Blackcurrant Tatyana’s day is a late ripening variety. It is perfectly adapted to the climatic conditions of the North Caucasus, Central, Middle Volga and Lower Volga regions. About the fruit abilities of the plant and the features of its cultivation, read further in the article.
Description of blackcurrant variety Tatyana's day
Tatyana's Day is a good variety of Russian selection. Gardeners noted an average susceptibility to fungal diseases: anthracnose, powdery mildew and spotting. Bushes can also be affected by some pests - kidney mites, aphids.
Important! With a lack of free space on the site, currants are planted next to grapes, under a peach or pear, since its bushes can grow better in shaded areas than others.
|comes into bearing||for 4 years|
|blooms||in the beginning of May|
|the crop is ripening||in the first half of August|
|taste||sweet and sour, needs to be sweetened|
|grows in all types of soil||loam, chernozem, sod-podzolic soil|
|lighting||requires at least 6 hours of sunshine per day|
Currant Tatyana’s day received at the Federal Scientific Center. Michurina in the 90s of the last century by crossing Bredtop and the Minai Shmyryov variety. She successfully passed the variety tests and entered the State Register in 1997.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Tatyana's day looks like a low shrub with shoot height - up to 1 m. Not too thickened, it does not need to be molded - just ordinary pruning of dry branches is enough. Crohn is medium spread. The bark of lignified shoots is gray with a slight sheen.
The leaves are large, five-lobed, with deep cuts. The sheet plate is matte, wrinkled. The base of the sheet is straight. The pointed lateral lobes are widely spaced from each other. Petiole is small, with slight pubescence.
Fruiting of the bush begins at 4 years. Currants bloom in May in goblet purplish-green flowers. They are collected in brushes, up to 7 cm long. The harvest ripens in the I-II decades of August. Berries weigh 1.2–1.4 g; this is the standard weight for the fruits of currant - not the largest, but not the smallest.
Black juicy berries are characterized by a spherical shape, sweet and sour taste and intense aroma. They contain 8.4% sugar and 2.9% ascorbic acid. Tasting assessment of fruit taste - 4 points. When harvesting the berries are well separated from the branches, without damage. The yield confirmed by the originator is 62 kg / ha (0.62 kg / m²).
Berries of this variety will surely appeal to those who do not like too sweet fruits. 100 g of currant contains only 44 kcal. It contains quite a lot of carbohydrates - about 10 g, almost no fat - about 0.3 g and less than 2 g of protein. Currants contain a lot of vitamin C, which increases immunity, as well as iron, a mineral that prevents anemia.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
In general, the variety can be described as “standard”.
- Among its advantages are the following:
- winter hardiness;
- drought tolerance;
- high productivity;
- late ripening;
- pest resistance;
- moderate sweet and sour taste (4 points out of 5).
The disadvantage is the average resistance to disease. Under adverse conditions, bushes can be affected by powdery mildew.
Did you know? Currant was widespread in America until it became clear that it is a carrier of fungi that cause rust. Therefore, its cultivation is prohibited in some states.
To ensure maximum yield, you need to create suitable conditions for the bush to grow:
- choose the right site;
- competently carry out a landing;
- to take good care of the plant: water, fertilize, fight pests.
Seat selection and landing
Tatyana’s day will grow well in temperate climates. It tolerates temperatures well up to -30 ° C in winter and up to + 30 ° C in summer. The variety is favorable to the composition of the soil: grows equally well in loam and chernozem, but clay soil should be diluted with sand to give looseness.
Good soil drainage is also required. The variety grows intensively both in the shade and in the sun, but a sunny area is preferable. Under such conditions, the fruits are larger and sweeter. Landing is planned for early spring or autumn, until mid-October. The main requirement for landing is the absence of frost.
The difference in planting method is that in the fall they do not fertilize, so as not to provoke intensive growth. The site is dug up to a depth of 40 cm and weeds are removed. Currants need neutral or slightly acidic soil, so it does not need to be deoxidized.
- In the selected area, a pit is prepared with a depth of up to 40 cm and a width of up to 50 cm.
- The removed topsoil is mixed with a bucket of humus or rotted manure. 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potash fertilizers are added.
- Part of the soil mix is laid in a pit.
- A seedling is placed on top.
- Fill up part of the soil. The bush should be planted at the same level as it grew in the nursery, or a little deeper. This should induce dormant growth buds to grow new shoots. The more branches, the higher the yield and the more resistant the plant will be to strong gusts of wind.
- Pour a bucket of water.
- Fill the remaining soil.
Plant care is watering, fertilizing and treating pests and diseases. Watering is necessary as the soil dries. Remember that drying speed is affected by air temperature and soil density. If there is often no possibility to water the bushes, it is recommended to cover the root zone with a layer of mulch. It will prevent the evaporation of moisture.
Did you know? The earliest records of currant cultivation date back to the 11th century, when it was grown in monastery gardens in Russia. She was called - "the monastery berry."
After rain or watering, weeds grow intensively. They compete with currants for moisture and nutrients, and also contribute to the propagation of pests and fungal spores. Weeds are regularly removed by weeding after each watering. But also their growth will be hindered by mulch, if its layer is at least 5 cm.
If fertilizers were applied during planting, then the next time they are applied only next spring. In the spring, fertilizing is required, which contains a lot of nitrogen. For example, urea or ammonium nitrate, where its proportion reaches 40% (30-50 g of the drug is diluted in 10 liters of water).
After the fruits are formed and ripen, the plant does not need nitrogen, but then phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are necessarily added. Application rate: 30 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium sulfate. They are dissolved in 10 liters of water and poured under each bush.
Instead of inorganic fertilizing, you can use organic fertilizers: 4 kg of rotted manure is dissolved in a bucket of water and the root zone is watered with this compound in early spring. The same top dressing is repeated in the summer during the formation of the fruit.
Pest and Disease Control
The appearance in the garden of a small number of pests or spores of fungi does not have a significant effect on strong healthy bushes. The problem arises if the wrong conditions are created for the development of plants: too thick shade, thickening, poor soil drainage.
Therefore, prevention begins with a properly selected site and control of weeds and bush density. If spots are detected on the leaves, the appearance of pathogenic microflora can be assumed.
The main diseases:
- Powdery mildew It appears in the form of a white-gray, flour-like plaque on the leaves. The spots increase, causing the leaves to fade and fall. They treat the disease by spraying the bush with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Anthracnose manifested by black spots on the leaves and rough spots with cracks similar to burns on young shoots. It is treated by spraying the plant with Fitosporin.
- Rust Appears as orange spots. It is treated by spraying the bushes with Bordeaux liquid 1% or other copper-based preparations.
It is difficult to detect the appearance of pests in the garden, as they settle on the lower surface of the leaves. Traces of their life - damage to the leaf plate, curl of the leaves.
Destroy them by spraying bushes with insecticides. Among them are drugs with a wide spectrum of action, or those that are intended for a certain group of insects.
The main pests:
- Aphid - These are small insects that settle on leaves and petioles in small colonies. Destroy them by spraying currants with a solution of insecticidal soap.
- Kidney mites - microscopic (0.2 mm) parasites are dangerous in that they damage any part of the plant, including flowers and fruits. To combat them, a plant treatment with a solution of colloidal sulfur 1% is used.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Most spores of mushrooms hibernate on the remains of grass, dry branches, in crevices of the bark, so in the fall the garden must be cleaned of the remnants of organic matter, weeds and fallen leaves are removed. Some gardeners cut the bush in autumn, and not in winter. They remove weak shoots, as well as those that create a thickening of the bush, and those that creep close to the ground.
Then the soil is dug up to partially destroy the insects that went to winter in the soil. At the same time, fertilizer is applied: it can be 4 kg of rotted manure or compost dissolved in a bucket of water. So that the bush is stocked with moisture, it is abundantly watered. Norm: 5 buckets of water per 1 bush.
In winter, the bush is at rest. Its shoots and buds tolerate frosts well, but badly - temperature differences and thaws. During the thaw, the soil freezes, the moisture formed during the subsequent frost can harden with ice and damage the roots. In addition, the ice, expanding, is trying to push the roots out of the ground.
To keep the soil stable after it freezes, a layer of mulch is laid on top. It will fulfill the role of insulation, preventing changes in temperature and state of aggregation. The variety does not need shelter for the winter. But if frosts are above -30 ° C, experienced gardeners advise bending branches to the ground and covering them with a layer of mulch after the soil freezes.
Harvesting and transportation of crops
Most varieties are characterized by non-simultaneous ripening of berries, so the harvesting process is divided into several parts. And each time only that part of the berries that is ripe is harvested. A sunny, dry day is best suited for harvesting.
Important! According to gardeners, the maturity of black currants occurs approximately 3 weeks after the berries are stained in a dark color.
The berries are removed from the bush along with the stalks. Store them in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0 ... + 5 ° C. If you freeze them in the freezer, then the shelf life will last up to 6 months. A large crop is processed for the winter in the form of juices, jellies, jams, preserves.
The skin of berries has a high density, which makes it easy to transport them. To do this, the crop is collected in small plastic containers, designed for a volume of 400 g each. In this case, the weight of the upper layers does not press on the lower ones. This is a positive aspect if the berries are harvested for sale.
So, Tatyana’s Day is a productive variety that shows good results in temperate climates. Observing the simple rules of caring for plants, you are sure to get a high crop of quality fragrant berries.