Gooseberry propagation by cuttings: terms and methods
Just one gooseberry bush is able to give a whole abundance of delicious, extremely healthy and fragrant berries. That is why many gardeners think about how to propagate a useful plant and create a large fruit garden. One of the most effective and profitable methods of propagation of the bush can be called cuttings. The article will examine in detail how to properly plant gooseberries with a green and lignified shank, and what is needed for this.
Basic rules gooseberry cuttings
Cuttings are considered a fairly simple and effective way of breeding plants, it allows you to grow forms identical to the mother's body, preserving all their varietal characteristics. However, for this it is necessary to choose the right bush suitable for picking up cuttings, and also be able to maintain their viability until planting in a permanent place.
Choosing a bush for picking material
To propagate gooseberries correctly, when choosing a mother plant, you must always follow a few mandatory rules. Only adult specimens, at least 5–6 years old, are suitable for cuttings. The fence of cuttings from younger plants is impractical, since this will provoke the death of the mother bush.
The next feature that the gardener should pay attention to is the external state of the gooseberry. For reproduction, you need to choose the largest and most developed bush, characterized by high productivity and an active increase in overhead mass. A good specimen for collecting material should be healthy, without any signs of infection with pests or infections. Otherwise, the selected cuttings will be exposed to parasitic organisms.
Important! About six months before the cuttings, the selected bush must be rejuvenated; for this, all old shoots should be cut to the base. This will help to obtain the most viable planting material.
Choosing a place and method for cutting
There are many ways to reproduce gooseberries, this fruit species is able to produce new specimens under minimal conditions, which is why today many methods are used for this. Traditionally, they are divided into autumn, spring and summer cuttings. Autumn is considered the best time to harvest cuttings. The selection of seedlings at this time allows already in early summer to obtain an rooted sprout with maximum viable potential.Gooseberries are grown in water or in moist soil.
Spring is an alternative season to the autumn of the procedure, the method is not inferior to the previous one in efficiency, and it makes it possible to root heat-loving and exotic varieties that are not able to winter safely before rooting. If it was not possible to germinate the gooseberry in the spring, you can perform the procedure in the summer.However, they do this no later than the second half of June, otherwise the young bush will not be able to form an effective root system. These two methods are both effective, but it is best to root the cuttings in stages, first immersing in a liquid, and then planting in moist soil. Thanks to this, even whimsical varieties capable of propagating only under ideal conditions can be cultivated.
Video: How to root cuttings in water
Types of gooseberry cuttings
Gooseberries can be cut in several ways, both young and mature shoots are suitable for this. In addition, each of these methods has its own subtleties of carrying out, as well as expediency in a particular situation.When growing a plant, it is necessary to carefully study not only the technology itself, but also the features of its implementation.
Propagation by green seedlings can be called the most effective and simple way to obtain daughter plants. Germination of young parts of the bush allows you to instantly plant gooseberries, as in young shoots cell division always occurs more actively than in mature ones. According to the methodology, the shoots formed in the same year are used as planting material, i.e., cuttings are formed from the processes of the bush that formed during spring. This procedure is often performed in early summer, until the end of June.
Due to the fact that lignified gooseberry cuttings are rooted with difficulty, this method of planting a culture is carried out in exceptional cases. Material for planting is formed from any part of the bush, however, rooting is best done if the cuttings are selected from the tops of the shoots. In addition, in order to maximize rooting, gooseberries are propagated with such planting material only in spring, and it is recommended that the procedure be carried out before the buds swell, immediately after the soil thaws.
The combined stem is part of a two-year-old lignified shoot, with a small green shoot. In this case, the length of the lignified part should not exceed 4 cm. Gooseberries are propagated in this way throughout the entire vegetative period.
There are several varieties of combined cuttings:
- with heel - it is obtained due to the arbitrary formation of the cuttings or simple breaking of the branches;
- with a crutch - when the cut goes on last year's growth;
- with stand - the green part is perpendicular to the lignified.
Cuttings in autumn
Cuttings are used everywhere in the fall; this method is known to most gardeners. The methodology for its implementation is quite simple, but not everyone succeeds in creating ideal conditions for the cut branch to not only grow, but also to winter well.
Which cuttings are suitable
The choice of shoots for autumn cuttings is as painstaking as possible. In addition to the optimal age, appearance, as well as activity, only bushes with young branches that were able to lignify before the end of the season are suitable for this. As a rule, such shoots have a rich green-brown hue, but the young branch retains its elasticity. You should choose only those parts of the bushes that went into autumn suspended animation (such plants completely lose foliage).
Seedlings are formed using one of the above methods (lignified, green, or combined cuttings), while correctly prepared material should have a total length of 15–25 cm. The lower shoot should be cut at an angle approximately 2–3 cm below the last bud, and the upper - in the horizontal direction, about 1–2 cm above the apical kidney. In this case, the total number of healthy kidneys on each part of the shoot should be at least 4-6 pieces.
Did you know? The first written mention of gooseberries is found in artifacts of Ancient Russia and dates from the 11th century.
Preparing for the winter
Planting cuttings in autumn in open ground is not possible, therefore, the prepared material for future planting is prepared for wintering. The shoots are treated with any universal protective agent, and then slightly dried. After that, they are placed in a plastic bag or wrapped with cling film.
Traditionally, the best place to save shoots until the next season is a basement or cellar, where the average air temperature does not drop below + 5 ° С. Alternatively, you can use temporary storage right on the site.To do this, you need to dig a hole in the bed about 1 m deep, where you should place the shoot fragments, additionally wrapping them in straw or hay, and then fill it with soil.
Rooted cuttings in early March. Plants are removed from the temporary storage and then carefully inspected. Only those fragments of shoots that have preserved the buds without any changes are allowed to germinate. Next, on cuttings, you need to update all sections, and then soak them in clean water, at room temperature, for 5-6 hours.
Important! During rooting, the water in the tank must be periodically changed, otherwise the root system will undergo rotting, which will lead to the death of planting material.
Over time, cuttings will give numerous white roots, as well as small leaves. As soon as the roots reach a length of 2 cm and darken, each shoot fragment is transplanted into a small individual container and rooted in a warm and bright place. Around the beginning of May, young plants become ready to dive into open soil.
Planting shrubs in the spring is great for those who do not want to spend extra effort on planting and are not able to save the cuttings throughout the winter. Subject to the optimal timing of the intake of planting material, the spring method of reproduction is no worse than the rest makes it possible to obtain a highly productive berry garden. This procedure is usually performed in early March, before the buds swell on the bush..
Material fence: choosing the right branches
To select high-quality planting material, you need to look at several features at once. The first thing to do is to exclude for selection bushes with traces of damage by a variety of pests and diseases. Such plants most often give infected material, characterized by low immunity.
Next, you need to look at the structure of the bush: the best for spring cuttings are green or semi-lignified branches, no more than one year old. Such shoots are distinguished by a small length, brownish-green tint, as well as elastic and juicy fabrics.Cuttings for planting are selected from the top of such branches, while their length should be about 25 cm, and the surface of the division should contain at least 4-6 viable kidneys.
After selecting the planting material, it must be placed in the refrigerator for a day. After that, on the bottom of each shoot, an oblique cut should be made at an angle of 45 °, and then soak the dividers in clean water at room temperature for 4-6 hours.
Next, the cuttings root, carry out this procedure according to the same scheme that is used for germinating shoots selected in the fall. After the successful formation of a young root system, future seedlings dive into individual garden pots. You can replace them with plastic glasses or any other small container.
Did you know? The first botanical description and systematization of gooseberries was given by the famous French botanist and physician Jean Ruel in 1538. Although until that time, the plant was known to mankind for at least 2 thousand years.
Before planting in a permanent place, the sprouted cuttings provide special care. Gooseberries are also surrounded by moderate humidity. Water the soil regularly, but in small portions, this will make it possible to avoid sharp fluctuations in moisture in the substrate, which best affects the increase in root mass.If possible, about 2 weeks after planting in the soil, seedlings can be fed; any complex mineral fertilizer for fruit and ornamental shrubs is suitable for this.Tanks with plants are kept on the most illuminated windowsill, providing them with moderate and diffused light.
Regardless of the time of harvesting the cuttings, approximately by the beginning of May the optimal period for rooting seedlings begins. By this time, not only a dense root network, but also several young leaves should appear on the shoots. Rooted dividers are planted in the early morning or late evening, in dry and cloudy weather. Best of all, a well-lit part of the plot, protected from drafts, with moderately water-absorbing sandy loam soil, is suitable for this.Gooseberries should be planted in a row or hole method, to a depth of 10–15 cm. For compact varieties, the distance between neighboring plants should be about 1 m, for spreading it should be increased to 2–2.5 m. Before planting cuttings, the soil on the site should be well fertilized. To do this, 10 kg of humus, 100 g of wood ash, 50 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium sulfate should be added to 1 m² of beds, and then mix thoroughly with the topsoil.
Growing gooseberries with cuttings is an effective, simple and low-cost way to create a highly productive garden on the site. Only one adult bush makes it possible to plant up to 10 young plants, while retaining all the original varietal and production characteristics of the mother form. However, not many manage to use the cuttings effectively, so often inexperienced gardeners have to be content with purchased planting material.