Black currant Ojebin - the main characteristics of the variety
Blackcurrant (although scientists call Asia its ancestral home) has been known since time immemorial in the Scandinavian countries, in the north of Russia. True, it was a wild currant. The first to engage in the cultivation of currants began in the XYII – XYIII centuries. in France and England. This article is about the Ojebin currant variety that appeared in northern Sweden.
Description of Ojebin blackcurrant variety
You can recognize bushes of Odzhebin currant by average height, small sprawl and a dense crown. Young growing shoots are first green and slightly pinkish, and as they grow older they become gray-brown and become stiff. Adult branches are thick, strong, mostly straight, the tops are brown. The buds are located on the shoot alone, the color is pinkish, the shape is elongated-oval.
Currant leaves are bright, light green in spring, dark green in summer with a small bronzovinka, medium-sized, soft, 3-5 lobed, with long petioles.
Thanks to the resinous glands on the back, currant leaves have a strong specific aroma with phytoncide properties. The flowers are pale pink, bell-shaped, collected in long and medium brushes of 5-8 berries. After ripening the berries, the cup quickly falls off. The plant is self-fertile (self-pollination - 40%). Bushes of black currant Ojebin well tolerate low temperatures.
They are practically not affected by powdery mildew and anthracnosis. They have moderate resistance to the kidney tick and are not resistant to rust.
Ojebin variety was not specifically bred. The originator is not registered. It turned out spontaneously - it was selected from wild plants in northern Sweden. This is a clone of the Erkheikki currant variety.
However, this is the only variety of currant that does not dry out in the heat even in the south of Ukraine
Due to its cold resistance, as well as its high resistance to powdery mildew and anthracnose, it was used as the primary basis for the creation of many varieties of currants in Sweden, Norway and Finland. To ensure increased resistance to powdery mildew and anthracnose, it is still widely used in breeding work.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Currant Ojebin is a mid-season variety, the berries ripen in July. The berries are mostly the same size, round, medium and large (0.8–1.5 g, according to reviews - up to 2.5 g), intense color (from dark purple to black), matte. The peel of the fruit is thin, but dense, the taste and aroma are juicy, sweet and sour with a nutmeg aftertaste.
Currants can cure or heal almost every human organ.
Ojebin begins to bear fruit in the second year. Productivity is annual and quite high: from an adult bush - 3-4 kg, industrial - 64-100 kg / ha. Berries are well preserved during transport. Blackcurrant is often called a pharmacy in the garden. In addition to the currant berries that are richest in composition and benefits, its leaves and branches also have healing properties. Phytoncides, carotene, ascorbic acid, and essential oil were found in the leaves. It is used in all branches of medicine.
The chemical composition of black currant (per 100 g):
|WITH||181.0 mg||201,1 %|
|IN 1||0.1 mg||4,2%|
|IN 2||0.1 mg||3,8%|
|IN 3||0.3 mg||1,9%|
|AT 5||0.4 mg||8,0%|
|AT 6||0.1 mg||5,1%|
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Advantages of Odzhebin currant:
- Resistance to powdery mildew and anthracnose.
- The possibility of reproduction by almost all known methods.
- Fast bush growth and the possibility of fruiting.
- Sustainable productivity.
- Frost resistance.
- The disadvantages of the Ojebin variety:
- Demanding for soil fertility.
- Demanding for watering.
- With poor care - susceptibility to terry and renal mite.
Currant Ojebin - a variety that gives abundant harvests. High and long-term productivity of bushes is determined by a complex of agrotechnical methods, and if they are observed, fruiting will be up to 15 years.
Seat selection and landing
The best soil for currant is chernozem and loam, well provided with moisture. The ideal place for currant bushes is the floodplain soils of rivers. But low-lying places in which water stagnates or nearby groundwater are not suitable for currants.
Did you know? Black currants can be distinguished from white and red even without leaves: if you move your hand along the shoot from the root upwards, then only black currants begin to emit their currant smell. Red, pink, white currants have no smell.
When choosing a place, it must be remembered that on light soils without the introduction of organic fertilizers, Ojebin currants will not grow well either. Blackcurrant is best grown on well-fertilized, moist, and loose soils. Currants really do not like acidic soil. But if you still need to plant a plot with acidic soil, then a year before planting, it is better to prepare it: to produce, that is, when digging in the winter, add 300-800 g of lime per 1 sq. Km. m
Currants are planted in the spring after frosts before the sap flow (mid-late March), or in the fall a month and a half before the start of frosts (September-October). It is necessary to take into account the fact that until late autumn in the berries (including currants) the root system is actively developing. The dimensions of the landing pit are about 50 cm x 60 cm, the depth is about 30–40 cm.
Currants love well-lit places (but not heat), and tolerates partial shade. Really doesn't like drafts.
When choosing a currant seedling, it is necessary, first of all, to carry out a purely visual inspection: whether the root system is developed, the roots should be light at the cut, the thickness of the shoots of the ground part should be thicker than a pencil, the absence of diseased or dried buds. The depth of the pit depends on the size of the seedling, but in general, the seedling should be buried 8-10 cm from the root neck. From the kidneys, which will be underground, additional roots and shoots will develop.
In addition, the root system will deepen into the lower layers and will not heat up in extreme heat. Fertilizers are introduced into the planting pit: half a bucket of humus, 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate, 20-30 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium chloride (a half-liter can of ash is often added instead). Fertilizers mix well with the ground. Before putting the seedling in the hole, the roots need to be trimmed a little.
When planting, it is advisable to place the plant at an angle of 45 °, which contributes to the development of additional roots and young shoots from buried buds. In the hole, the roots are spread apart, but do not bend, otherwise the plant will adapt for a long time in a new place. When the landing pit is half-filled (even though the ground is sufficiently moist), the seedling must be watered. This is done so that in the root zone do not leave air pockets and the roots are more in contact with the ground.
In order to ensure that the ratio of the root system and the ground part is approximately the same after planting, pruning is also carried out above the ground, 2-3 buds are left, 3-4 buds on annual seedlings. For small plantings of currant between rows it is necessary to leave about 2 m, between plants - 1–1.5 m.
For good growth and fruiting, currants need fertile and moist soil., since the plant absorbs a large amount of nutrients, therefore, before planting and during the growing season of the bushes, a sufficient amount of fertilizer must be applied to the soil. The first time fertilizers are applied before planting seedlings.
As a rule, this is done in the first half of October:
- 5-6 kg of organic fertilizers per 1 sq. m are poorly cultivated in the soil m;
- in medium cultivated soils - 4–5 kg per square meter. m;
- in well-cultivated soils - also 4-5 kg per square meter. m, but after 2 years.
It must be remembered that for currants it is not advisable to use chlorine-containing fertilizers.
Together with organic fertilizers, mineral fertilizers are also added, on average 150-200 g of superphosphate and 30-50 g of potassium sulfate per 1 sq. Km. m Fertilizers are applied only to the soil cleared of weeds. To do this, on the eve it is necessary to remove all weeds so that only currant bushes take advantage of the fertilizing. The fertilizers laid during planting are usually enough for 2 years of growth and fruiting of the currant.
Three-year-old bushes begin to feed. During the growing season of currant Odzhebin it is advisable to make four dressings: one in the spring, two in the summer when the berries ripen, and one after the harvest. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are of particular importance for the plant, since they contribute to the growth of the green mass of the bush and, accordingly, the appearance of more berries.
Important! Currants are very fond of starch, and therefore dried or boiled with boiling water (so as not to sprout!) And cooled potato peelings for it — very "tasty" top dressing.
Urea is introduced - 15 g per 1 square. m or ammonium nitrate - 25 g per 1 sq. km. m It should be borne in mind that potassium and nitrogen are easily washed out of the soil into the lower layers of the soil, and in order for the plant to really master the fertilizing, it must be carried out in the spring when the snow melts, immediately after the last spring frosts.
In addition, nitrogen fertilizers stimulate the growth of young shoots, and in the fall (before winter) this is undesirable. Also in the spring, organic matter is added to top dressing - diluted 1:10 mullein or 1:20 bird droppings. Under an adult bush, it is enough to spill two buckets of fertilizer, under a young bush - one bucket.
From the second and third top dressing depends on whether the currant is large. These top dressings are carried out after flowering, when small green berries have already appeared on the bush and when the berries begin to turn black. Fertilizing is also done with organics, but more abundant - three buckets per bush.
The fourth top dressing is carried out after the collection of berries, in late July - early August. The plant is depleted during this period, and fertilizers will be used for its restoration and for laying healthy fruit buds for the next season. Fertilizing is carried out with mineral fertilizers and organics: a spoon of superphosphate, a spoon of potassium nitrate and a glass of ash are taken on a bucket of water. Organics are bred in the same way as the first and second top dressing. Two buckets of fertilizing are poured under each bush.
Fertilizing is carried out:
- dry fertilizers - according to the projection of the crown of the bush, after which they are closed up by loosening the earth;
- aqueous solutions - into the hole according to the projection of the bush, after which the earth is loosened, filling up the fertilizer.
In addition to top dressing the roots, in June - July you can also spend several (usually 3) foliar top dressing of bushes. For this, 3 g of boric acid, 5 g of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) and 35 g of copper sulfate are diluted in separate containers. The resulting solutions are poured into 10 l of water and spraying the bushes. This procedure is recommended in the absence of the sun.
The root system of currant is not deep - at a depth of 20-30 cm, therefore it is a very moisture-loving plant. Currants have periods of vegetation, when the plant is particularly sensitive to watering. This is, firstly, during flowering, and secondly, during the ripening period of the fruits and, thirdly, after or during the collection of berries. Under the bush, pour 20-30 liters of warm water.
Important! Sufficiently moist soil, when squeezed in the hand, gathers in a lump, sticking a little to the palm. If, when squeezed, the earth easily sticks to the hand, water appears on the lump — watering should be reduced.
Watering in circular grooves with a depth of 10-15 cm (according to the projection of the bush) or in irrigation areas under the bushes, limiting them with an earthen roller. Feeding can be combined with watering. So that the earth does not dry longer, you need to mulch the earth under a bush.
In addition to watering, the soil under the currant must be loosened, taking into account the depth of the roots: between the bushes - to a depth of 13–20 cm, under the bushes - up to 5–8 cm. During the growing season, loosening is carried out up to 6 times.
Pest and Disease Control
Currant Ojebin is not very susceptible to powdery mildew and anthracnose, but if not properly maintained, it may be unstable to mites, rust and terry. It is extremely rarely exposed to other diseases. Fighting diseases and pests begins in early spring. In late February - early March, before the buds swell, currant bushes are treated with boiling water. In practice, water is used for this, which has cooled down to 70–80 ° С.
Fighting diseases and pests begins in early spring.
In this case, it is advisable to cover the roots of the plant in order to avoid burns (with a tarpaulin, a piece of plywood). In water to enhance the effect, you can add salt or potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). Processing is carried out evenly, but does not stop in one place, so as not to scald the bush. The method is environmentally friendly, but does not guarantee 100% disposal, therefore, it is necessary to treat the bushes in early spring with a 1% solution of malathion, 1% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid. During the growing season, the bushes can be treated with fungicides another 2–4 times.
It is also necessary to cultivate the soil under the bush. Also, in spring, immediately after the snow melts, the soil around the bush is loosened by about 3 cm and watered. In autumn, all fallen leaves, branches from under the bush must be collected and burned (pests can hide in them for the winter). In the currant, first of all, you can see the ticks. This is one of the most dangerous pests of Ojebin currant. A tick can damage up to 50–80% of the kidneys. Bushes infected with a kidney tick weaken over time and, if appropriate measures are not taken, die.
Important! The first signs of terry may appear no earlier than 4 years, therefore, for shanks, bushes of 5-year-old plants are used.
Kidneys inhabited by ticks can be distinguished even in early autumn. They are also clearly visible at the beginning of plant vegetation. The affected kidney is much larger than the unaffected, it is rounded in shape, similar to a miniature head of cabbage. Inside the kidneys live up to 1.5 thousand very small ticks that are not visible to the eye. Branches affected by ticks in early spring must be cut and burned.
During flowering, female ticks leave their shelter and settle in new buds. At this point, the most effective treatment for a kidney tick. The plant is treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur (10 g of the mixture per 10 l of water). A kidney tick is a carrier of another dangerous disease - currant reversal or terry.
It is possible to identify a plant with a reversion plant by a number of signs:
- the flowers of infected bushes change color from bright red at the beginning to purple at the end of flowering, become double;
- diseased leaves become small, irregular in shape, lose a specific currant smell;
- the plant ceases to bear fruit.
There are no drugs for this mycoplasma disease of currant, therefore the only method of struggle is the destruction of diseased plants. Prevention - the fight against the kidney tick, the acquisition of proven seedlings.
Another dangerous disease that can lead to the death of a plant is goblet rust. It affects the leaves (they turn yellow and fall), the stalks and fruits of the currant (become unusable). The causative agent of the disease is a fungus of rust that overwinters on sedge, and in the spring, during flowering, spores are blown onto the buttocks by the wind. With a significant lesion, yield decreases. In an infected plant, metabolic processes are disturbed, frost resistance decreases.
Rust prevention measures are simple:
- destruction of sedge within a radius of 500 m from the stands;
- collection and burning of fallen leaves, branches;
- prevention of thickening of bushes, timely pruning;
- treatment of bushes in spring with fungicides.
If the infection did occur, then for the fight we use repeated treatment with fungicides, a solution of colloidal sulfur or Bordeaux liquid. Processing should be done three times: during the blooming of leaves, before and after flowering.
Unfortunately, currants are also attacked by various pests. The most common are aphids, small fires, and glass. The result of the “work” of aphids is evident - the leaves on the plants curl up, the young shoots are curved. Wintering aphid eggs are destroyed by treating the bushes with an 8% nitrofen solution or chlorophos solution (20 g of solution per 10 l of water).
Firefly larvae winter in leaves under currant bushes. To prevent them from creeping out before budding, you need to mulch the earth under the bushes with a thick layer of mulch or cover with non-woven materials. The larvae die. Glass-larvae hibernate under the bush, and begin to eat, gnawing branches from the inside. A black core is visible on the shoot break. Affected branches are cut to the base of the bush and burned.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Pruning and forming a bush of currants is carried out throughout the entire vegetation period of the plant. The proper formation and pruning of bushes is an important measure to increase productivity and produce high quality fruits.
Important! If pruning is carried out correctly, then 90% of complications associated with diseases and pests of currants can be avoided.
Currant bears fruit better on lateral growths located on 2-3-year-old shoots. The older the branch, the less fruitful buds on it and the finer the berries, so the formation of bushes with young fruitful branches is an important factor in prolonging good yield of high quality berries.
During pruning, it is necessary to take into account the biological characteristics of the Ojebin variety - the ability to quickly form new basal shoots. Resulting bush Ojebina is prone to excessive thickening and requires timely booking.
Fig. 1. Currant pruning: a - annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c).
Depending on the age of the bush, the nature of the pruning varies. When planting, the upper and root parts of the bush are brought into correspondence. In addition, they cut off the apical kidney, which pulls on itself all the nutrients, does not allow the formation of lateral branches-stumps. That is, the bush ages immediately in the first year of planting. And therefore, after planting, up to 2-3 buds are cut each branch (cut - about 1.5 cm above the kidney, oblique, down).
For the first three years, it is important to obtain a large vegetative mass, which, in turn, will serve as the basis for large yields, therefore, pruning during this period is aimed at forming a bush: unnecessary and weakened annual shoots are cut, strong tops are shortened by a third. After pruning, 2–4 buds should remain on the shoots.
In the fourth or fifth year, more than 12-14 branches of different ages can grow on the bushes. A large number of them thickens the bushes, as a result of which the quality of the fruit deteriorates, the yield decreases and the risk of diseases and reproduction of pests increases, therefore, from the fourth year, the bush should be gradually rejuvenated: in an adult plant, 8-10 branches of different ages should vegetate annually.
Important! Always need to be cut off over the bud that "looks" out of the bush: a new branch will grow from it.
Old branches are pruned immediately after harvesting. Cut them off near the ground to stimulate the development of young shoots.Further bush formation consists in the systematic replacement of unproductive old and diseased branches with more valuable young ones.
During the autumn pruning, a bush is mainly formed, in the spring light sanitary pruning is performed. Pest branches are cut throughout the year. Slices of currants grow very poorly, so be sure to lubricate them with garden var. Healthy cropped shoots can be used on cuttings. From healthy old branches, you can make layering, after making a clove of the grooves on the bark of the stems with a clove for faster rooting.
Cutting currants is carried out during periods of rest: either in late autumn or in early spring.
Odzhebin currant grade - winter hardy, and therefore, a set of measures before wintering is aimed mainly at feeding and sanitizing the bush and near-shrub space. Before pruning, preventive measures against diseases and pests are mandatory. All plant debris (fallen leaves, dry branches) is removed and burned. After this, fungicides (or a solution of potassium permanganate, or a solution of laundry soap) process the plant and the earth around the bush.
Did you know? Many gardeners, when planting currants, recommend adding raw chicken eggs (2 per bush) as a top dressing.
In autumn, the main pruning of currants is carried out, a bush is formed: annual tops are removed (plant pests winter there), dry, undeveloped shoots, young shoots are thinner than a pencil.Places of cuts are necessarily treated with garden var. Before applying fertilizers, water-charging irrigation of currant bushes is performed (30-50 l of water per plant).
Autumn digging of the soil is combined with fertilizer application. In autumn, only phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are added together with organic matter. Nitrogen contained in organic fertilizers will become available to the plant only after decomposition in the soil, in the spring, i.e. when it will be most needed by the plant.
Digging is done carefully, shallowly, taking care not to damage the roots (close to 5-6 cm, further from the base to a depth of 15 cm). Light soil must be loosened to protect it from freezing to great depths. Heavy soil is left lumpy to retain moisture. The peri-shrub space is necessarily mulched.
If the winter is forecasted to be cold (below -25 ° C), it is still recommended to warm the currants. To do this, currant branches are grouped in several pieces, bent to the ground in the direction of their growth and pressed by boards and bricks. If frosts in excess of -35 ° C are expected, then, in addition to bending, the bushes are wrapped using agrofibre and mineral wool.
You can also warm the currants by digging them in with the earth, but in this case you should not allow glaciation (air access to the plant should be in any case).
Harvesting and transportation of crops
The berries of Ojebin currant ripen at the same time and can be on the bushes for up to a month. This makes it possible to harvest in one step. Although the separation of berries from the brush is dry, it is still better to remove the fruits from the bushes with brushes, so they last longer and easier to transport.
If the berries are intended for technical processing or shipping over a long distance, they are picked in an unripe state: when the first berries ripen in the brush or 10-12 days before full ripening. Berries harvested in unripe form are well preserved for 10-18 days and ripen on the way, but in taste they are significantly inferior to berries ripened in the bushes. If the berries are intended to be consumed locally, they are picked in the phase of full maturity.
Gather berries in dry and non-hot weather, in baskets or sieves, in which further transportation is carried out.
The berries are kept in a cool place until shipped. It is advisable to transport berries in the evening or at night, well covered from dust and rain. The excellent characteristics of the Ojebin currant berries, as well as the semi-spoilage and elasticity of the shoots allow us to recommend this variety for mechanized harvesting. Currant Odebin - a variety popular for industrial cultivation in Poland and the Scandinavian countries.
Recently, there has been an increase in demand for freshly sold berries. Due to its unique composition, as well as the fact that it tolerates freezing, and even thaws it retains its structure when thawed, providing the opportunity to provide vitamins all year round, currants remain one of the most popular berry crops.